Change in Composition

Gut dysbiosis has been detected in patients with IBD.1,2 Reductions in biodiversity, temporal stability, and abundance of specific bacterial species have been consistently observed in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease.1-3,6,7

Patients with IBD typically exhibit a reduction in commensal bacteria with anti-inflammatory effects and an increase in bacterial species that promote inflammation.1,2,4,8 The composition of nonbacterial microorganisms, such as certain fungi and viruses, is also differentially abundant in patients with IBD compared with healthy individuals.1

While evidence supports significant compositional changes in the gut, it is not clear if these microbial changes cause—or are triggered by—the disorder.3,4

MICROBIAL IMBALANCE IN IBD SYMPTOMS >>
IBD = Inflammatory bowel disease.
 
 

References

  1. Somineni HK, Kugathasan S. The microbiome in patients with inflammatory disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;17(2):243-255.
  2. Zuo T, Ng SC. The gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and therapeutics of inflammatory bowel disease. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:2247.
  3. Weingarden AR, Vaughn BP. Intestinal microbiota, fecal microbiota transplantation, and inflammatory bowel disease. Gut Microbes. 2017;8(3):238-252.
  4. Yu LC. Microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancers: exploring a common ground hypothesis. J Biomed Sci. 2018;25(1):79.
  5. Casén C, Vebø HC, Sekelja M, et al. Deviations in human gut microbiota: a novel diagnostic test for determining dysbiosis in patients with IBS or IBD. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;42(1):71-83.
  6. Frank DN, St Amand AL, Feldman RA, Boedeker EC, Harpaz N, Pace NR. Molecular-phylogenetic characterization of microbial community imbalances in human inflammatory bowel diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(34):13780-13785.
  7. Halfvarson J, Brislawn CJ, Lamendella R, et al. Dynamics of the human gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease. Nat Microbiol. 2017;2:17004.
  8. Morgan XC, Tickle TL, Sokol H, et al. Dysfunction of the intestinal microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and treatment. Genome Biol. 2012;13(9):R79.
  9. Li J, Butcher J, Mack D, Stintzi A. Functional impacts of the intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21(1):139-153
  10. Sartor RB, Wu GD. Roles for intestinal bacteria, viruses, and fungi in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and therapeutic approaches. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(2):327-339.
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